What I found interesting in the Lodge reading is that is stated that centralized countries (like South Africa) are more likely to be corrupt than noncentralized countries (or at least that centralized systems can contribute to corruption). I wonder if this is the case because in federal systems political accountability comes from the people (because they vote in elections for multiple, distinct levels of government) whereas centralized systems have political accountability from bureaucrats and party officials above them. This would imply that bureaucracies are dependent on political accountability, and that the way political accountability is set up directly affects corruption.
The bureaucracy in South Africa is transitioning and becoming increasingly political; meaning more political appointments and pressures under the ANC. Cameron identifies a paradox emerging- one in which the politicians want higher quality service delivery from bureaucrats, but at the same time do not trust even senior political appointees to do this. Finally, there is also a high turnover rate of bureaucrats, so Cameron recommends moving to a more merit based system, rather than increasingly relying on appointments.
This article examines how the imperative to undo institutionalized racism has played out in the South African bureaucracy, and specifically how it works against many Weberian ideals. von Holdt touches on how many state leaders have attempted to create a modern bureaucracy, yet their first priority has actually been to eliminate racist undertones present in the system. Racism permeated every aspect of society during apartheid, meaning that even things like recruitment based on skill and respect of authority have complex racial pasts that the ANC is trying to reshape, resulting in a bureaucracy that is shaped by nationalism rather than the Weberian model.
This article begins as most do; states what its purpose is and defines some key terms. Following the introduction, Lodge provides a brief description of the South African Government’s bureaucracy and the state of corruption in other African countries. In the middle of the article, historical accounts of South Africa’s apartheid and post-apartheid corruption scandals. Finally, the article concludes by analyzing the generalization of theses accounts to try to find general trends of corruption.