This chapter focuses on what can be done to improve the effects of building state capacity and introduces an approach called “problem-driven iterative adaptation” (PDIA) as an effective measure. To explain PDIA, the authors focus on a classroom exercise where participants attempt to design a strategy to travel from east to west in the United States in 2015 and 1804. The 2015 strategy is fairly straightforward, as the participants conclude that there is a clearly identified solution, existing knowledge to help them plan their route, a single leader, and a small group of individuals required to travel with relatively little risk. On the other hand, the 1804 strategy shows that there must be experimental iterations and adaptations to travel westward, along with multiple leaders managing risk factors and a large group of individuals with different talents. The 1804 strategy is similar to what the authors define PDIA is: “A process strategy that does not rely on blueprints and known solutions as the key to building state capability…[it should] foster active, ongoing experimental iterations…establish an authorizing environment for decision-making that encourages experimentation…[and]engage broad sets of agents to ensure that reforms are viable” (154). The authors conclude the chapter with data supporting the claim that effective state building encompasses the ideas of both the 2015 and 1804 strategy, with the 1804 strategy being more dominant.